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Energies 14

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Energies 14 ( energies-14 )

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energies Review A Review on CO2 Capture Technologies with Focus on CO2-Enhanced Methane Recovery from Hydrates Salvatore F. Cannone * , Andrea Lanzini and Massimo Santarelli Energy Department, Politecnico di Torino, Via Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy; andrea.lanzini@polito.it (A.L.); massimo.santarelli@polito.it (M.S.) * Correspondence: salvatore.cannone@polito.it Abstract: Natural gas is considered a helpful transition fuel in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of other conventional power plants burning coal or liquid fossil fuels. Natural Gas Hydrates (NGHs) constitute the largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. Methane contained within the crystalline structure can be replaced by carbon dioxide to enhance gas recovery from hydrates. This technical review presents a techno-economic analysis of the full pathway, which begins with the capture of CO2 from power and process industries and ends with its transportation to a geological sequestration site consisting of clathrate hydrates. Since extracted methane is still rich in CO2, on-site separation is required. Focus is thus placed on membrane-based gas separation technologies widely used for gas purification and CO2 removal from raw natural gas and exhaust gas. Nevertheless, the other carbon capture processes (i.e., oxy-fuel combustion, pre-combustion and post-combustion) are briefly discussed and their carbon capture costs are compared with membrane separation technology. Since a large-scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facility requires CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure, a technical, cost and safety assessment of CO2 transportation over long distances is carried out. Finally, this paper provides an overview of the storage solutions developed around the world, principally studying the geological NGH formation for CO2 sinks. Keywords: carbon capture and storage (CCS); CO2 replacement; CO2 capture; CO2 transportation; CO2 storage; natural gas; gas hydrate; sustainability; membrane technology; economic analysis 1. Introduction The processing of raw materials, energy production, and human activity in general has caused a rise in the temperature of about 1.0 ◦C above pre-industrial levels, leading to climate change at a global level. The risks for natural and human systems are obviously even higher for global warming of 1.5 ◦C, but still lower than in the case of a rise of 2.0 ◦C. Limiting global warming to 1.5 ◦C reduces the impacts on ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, health, food safety, water supply, and economic growth compared to 2.0 ◦C [1]. Global energy consumption in 2018 increased by 2.3% with respect to 2017 scenarios due to economic improvement and a higher heating and cooling requirement in some regions of the world. The increase in energy efficiency and the share of renewable energy, and the transition from coal to gas power plants, have helped to avoid a lot of CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, the CO2 emissions rose by 1.7%, reaching a total of 33.1 Gigatons (Gt). This means that energy consumption and CO2 emissions increase together, and they are not yet decoupled. The largest CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of carbon dioxide emissions related to energy consumption, is coal-fired power generation. The growing energy demand is not totally covered by new renewable plants and, consequently, fossil fuel consumption is increasing (e.g., the consumption of natural gas rose by 4.6% in 2018) [2]. Natural gas, composed mostly of methane, is considered a helpful bridge fuel to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels. It has the lowest carbon intensity (i.e., the emission rate of a given pollutant relative to a specific activity), emitting less 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Citation: Cannone,S.F.;Lanzini,A.; Santarelli, M. A Review on CO2 Capture Technologies with Focus on CO2-Enhanced Methane Recovery from Hydrates. Energies 2021, 14, 387. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020387 Received: 23 October 2020 Accepted: 8 January 2021 Published: 12 January 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu- tral with regard to jurisdictional clai- ms in published maps and institutio- nal affiliations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Li- censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and con- ditions of the Creative Commons At- tribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Energies 2021, 14, 387. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020387 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/energies

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