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Text from PDF Page: 002function of operating conditions (temperature, pressure, composition) addressing CO2 and trace gases (SO2, NO, Hg, etc.), (d) standardized comparisons of CO2 removal processes [6-8], and (e) providing laboratory-scale verification and validation of the predicted performance [6, 7, 9]. In these ways it is similar to the most thoroughly analyzed alternatives and some of their primary challenges, namely oxyfuel firing (burnout, deposit formation, heat transfer patterns) and combustor, gasifier, and pyrolyzer cofiring with biomass, including methods of increasing gasification and combustion efficiency and reliability [10-21]. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The cryogenic CO2 capture (CCC) process (Figure 1) dries and cools flue gas from existing systems, modestly compresses it, cools it to a temperature slightly above the point where CO2 forms a solid, expands the gas to further cool it, precipitating an amount of CO2 as a solid that depends on the final temperature, pressurizes the CO2, and reheats the CO2 and the remaining flue gas by cooling the incoming gases. The final result is the CO2 in a liquid phase and a gaseous nitrogen stream. CO2 capture efficiency depends primarily on the pressure and temperature at the end of the expansion process. At 1 atm, the process captures 99% of the CO2 at -211 °F (-135 °C) and 90% at -184 °F (-120 °C). These are relatively mild conditions as compared to competing processes, as is discussed next. Most alternative processes are not reasonably capable of achieving 99% CO2 capture. Furthermore, the captured CO2 has virtually no impurity in it. A thermodynamic feature of CO2 in flue gases (< 15% CO2 on a dry basis) is that the CO2 will not form a liquid phase at any temperature or pressure. Rather, the CO2 desublimates, forming an essentially pure solid phase rather than a liquid solution that must be distilled. Gaseous N2-rich Stream Pressurized Liquid CO2 Stream Compression Condensing Heat Exchanger SO2, Hg, HCl, etc. Expansion CO2-rich Stream N2-rich Steam Solid-gas Separator Figure 1 Simple schematic diagram of the cryogenic carbon capture (CCC) process. Flue Gas Dry Gas Moisture This process shares some similar unit operations with oxygen-fired combustion followed by CO2 compression, often called oxyfiring and a competing CO2 separation process. A comparison of the two illustrates the cost and energy efficiency advantages of CCC (Figure 2). A typical oxyfiring process (1)
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