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Text from PDF Page: 001Cryogenic CO2 Capture as a Cost-Effective CO2 Capture Process Larry Baxter1,2, Andrew Baxter2, and Stephanie Burt1 1Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 2Sustainable Energy Solutions Orem, UT 84058 ABSTRACT The cryogenic CO2 capture (CCC) process appears to consume 30% or more less energy and money than other major competing carbon capture processes. The process cools CO2-laden flue gas to desublimation temperatures (-100 to -135 °C), separates solid CO2 that forms from the flue gas from the light gases, uses the cold products to cool incoming gases in a recuperative heat exchanger, compresses the solid/liquid CO2 to final pressures (100-200 atm), and delivers a compressed CO2 stream separated from an atmospheric pressure light-gas stream. The overall energy and economic costs appear to be at least 30% lower than most competing processes that involve air separation units (ASUs), solvents, or similar technologies. In addition, the CCC process enjoys several ancillary benefits, including (a) it is a minimally invasive bolt-on technology, (b) it provides highly efficient removal of most pollutants (Hg, SOx, NO2, HCl, etc.), (c) possible energy storage capacity, and (d) potential water savings. This paper outlines the process details and economic and energy comparisons relative to other well-documented alternatives. INTRODUCTION Energy and related environmental issues span national and regional boundaries and influence many generations. Their solutions require comparable scope and duration. Many people envision a future dominated by non-fossil energy generation, a dramatic departure from the current infrastructure. However, solutions to the most daunting energy issues cannot wait for a fossil-free energy future. There is a critical need for an energy supply and utilization infrastructure based on currently available processes that provides for current needs while greatly reducing the environmental consequences to future generations . The global and multi-generational environmental concerns include traditional and climate-change pollutant emission, energy-driven water demand, resource depletion, and economics, all of which this center addresses. The program addresses several aspects of energy generation, as it is clear that no one topic will solve all of the problems . Fossil fuels provide about 85% of US and global energy, making it unrealistic to imagine a near-term, fossil-free infrastructure. Fossil fuels also dominantly contribute to global climate change. Therefore, carbon capture and storage (CCS) looms large in any transitional energy infrastructure. A recently patented process for CO2 removal from flue gas [3-5] portends a substantial decrease in both cost and energy consumption compared to solvent- and oxygen-based systems. Some of the detailed issues associated with this technology include (a) characterization (size distribution, morphology) of desublimated CO2 particles, (b) particle separation from gases and subsequent pressurization of the condensed phase at cryogenic temperatures, (c) process and scientific models of CO2 removal as a
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