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Text from PDF Page: 003SAND2017-12665 Printed November 2017 Unlimited Release Practical Application Limits of Fuel Cells and Batteries for Zero Emission Vessels John J. Minnehan and Joseph W. Pratt Energy Innovation Department (8366) Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 969 Livermore, California, 94551 Abstract Batteries and hydrogen fuel cells provide zero emission power at the point of use. They are studied as an alternative powerplant for maritime vessels by considering 14 case studies of various ship sizes and routes varying from small passenger vessels to the largest cargo ships. The method used was to compare the mass and volume of the required zero emission solution to the available mass and volume on an existing vessel considering its current engine and fuel storage systems. The results show that it is practically feasible to consider these zero emission technologies for most vessels in the world’s fleet. Hydrogen fuel cells proved to be the most capable while battery systems showed an advantage for high power, short duration missions. The results provide a guide to ship designers to determine the most suitable types of zero emission powerplants to fit a ship based on its size and energy requirements. 3
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