logo

Properties of Methanol Transport for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

PDF Publication Title:

Properties of Methanol Transport for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells ( properties-methanol-transport-direct-methanol-fuel-cells )

Next Page View | Return to Search List

Text from PDF Page: 001

polymers Article New Insights into Properties of Methanol Transport in Sulfonated Polysulfone Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Cataldo Simari 1,* , Isabella Nicotera 1 , Antonino Salvatore Aricò 2, Vincenzo Baglio 2 and Francesco Lufrano 2,* 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Citation: Simari,C.;Nicotera,I.; Aricò, A.S.; Baglio, V.; Lufrano, F. New Insights into Properties of Methanol Transport in Sulfonated Polysulfone Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Polymers2021,13,1386. https:// doi.org/10.3390/polym13091386 Academic Editor: Dong Jin Yoo Received: 26 March 2021 Accepted: 22 April 2021 Published: 24 April 2021 1 2 * Correspondence: cataldo.simari@unical.it (C.S.); francesco.lufrano@itae.cnr.it (F.L.) Abstract: Methanol crossover through a polymer electrolyte membrane has numerous negative effects on direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) because it decreases the cell voltage due to a mixed potential (occurrence of both oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions) at the cathode, lowers the overall fuel utilization and contributes to long-term membrane degradation. In this work, an investigation of methanol transport properties of composite membranes based on sulfonated polysulfone (sPSf) and modified silica filler is carried out using the PFG-NMR technique, mainly focusing on high methanol concentration (i.e., 5 M). The influence of methanol crossover on the performance of DMFCs equipped with low-cost sPSf-based membranes operating with 5 M methanol solution at the anode is studied, with particular emphasis on the composite membrane approach. Using a surface-modified-silica filler into composite membranes based on sPSf allows reducing methanol cross-over of 50% compared with the pristine membrane, making it a good candidate to be used as polymer electrolyte for high energy DMFCs. Keywords: direct methanol fuel cells; PFG-NMR; sulfonated polysulfone; methanol crossover; acidic silica 1. Introduction Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are envisaged as powerful systems for next gen- eration electronic devices, capable to sustain longer operation compared to Li-batteries without the drawbacks of the time-consuming charging process [1–5]. DMFCs utilize a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) as the electrolyte and separator between anode and cathode; the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of this latter are among the key factors limiting the DMFC performance, whereas the membrane cost and durability greatly influence the potential commercialization of complete devices [6–8]. State-of-the-art membranes for DMFCs are based on perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSAs), such as Nafion® membranes, which are used successfully in DMFCs operating with a low methanol concentration (1 or 2 M) at the anode [9,10]. Operation with high methanol concentration produces high methanol permeation through the membrane, from the anode to the cathode, leading to a loss of fuel efficiency in the DMFC together with a mixed potential at the cathode with a consequent decrease of cell voltage, unless a cathodic catalyst tolerant to the alcohol is used [9,11,12]. Consequently, the research on new proton exchange membranes is mandatory not only to reduce the methanol permeation while maintaining a good proton conductivity, but also to reduce the cost compared to the expensive PFSA membranes. A series of different strategies are currently pursued to find polymer electrolytes able to replace PFSA membranes, maintaining or improving the performance of the DMFC, also Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy; isabella.nicotera@unical.it CNR-ITAE, Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l’Energia “Nicola Giordano”, Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n., 5-98126 S. Lucia-Messina, Italy; antonino.arico@itae.cnr.it (A.S.A.); vincenzo.baglio@itae.cnr.it (V.B.) Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Polymers 2021, 13, 1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091386 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/polymers

PDF Image | Properties of Methanol Transport for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

properties-methanol-transport-direct-methanol-fuel-cells-001

PDF Search Title:

Properties of Methanol Transport for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Original File Name Searched:

polymers-13-01386.pdf

DIY PDF Search: Google It | Yahoo | Bing

SeaMerlin The SeaMerlin Engine is a water based gas leverage turbine for marine propulsion, seawater distillation, oceanwater CO2 harvesting, and more.

About: More about Infinity Turbine and the quest for the Xprize... More Info

Strategy and Consulting Services: Renewable energy strategy, Organic Rankine Cycle, CO2 energy, and Sonification technology consulting... More Info

@elonmusk XPrize $100 million CO2 Challenge: Carbon Removal Prize Challenge Sponsored by Elon Musk... More Info

CO2 Phase Change Demonstrator: Experiment with gas to liquids (CO2 to alcohol) using Nafion and our phase change demonstrator cart (we can ship worldwide)... More Info

CO2 GTL Gas to Liquids Experimental Platform: Experiment with gas to liquids (CO2 to alcohol) using Nafion (electrolyzer membrane) and our phase change demonstrator cart (we can ship worldwide). CO2 goes supercritical at 31 C. This is a experimental platform which you can use to demonstrate phase change with low heat. Includes integration area for small CO2 turbine, static generator, Nafion pellets, Nafion membrate, or Nafion tubes... More Info

Concept: The concept of the SeaMerlin Engine is to convert or supplement existing marine vessel propulsion to a gas leverage turbine which scavenges CO2 from saltwater at the same time it provides vessel thrust.

CONTACT TEL: 608-238-6001 Email: greg@seamerlin.com | RSS | AMP