Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Reduced Graphene Oxide

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Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Reduced Graphene Oxide ( micro-direct-methanol-fuel-cell-reduced-graphene-oxide )

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􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 micromachines Article Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Electrode Chaoran Liu 1, Sanshan Hu 1,2, Lu Yin 2, Wenli Yang 1,2, Juan Yu 2, Yumin Xu 1,2, Lili Li 1, Gaofeng Wang 1 and Luwen Wang 2,* 1 2 * Correspondence: wangluwen@ifet-tsinghua.org Abstract: The effect of an anode composite electrode on the performance of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) is analyzed from sample preparation configurations and discussed in detail, with a specific focus on the catalyst layer and the micro-porous layer on the anode composite electrode. This study investigates the effects of Pt content, Pt-Ru molar ratio, Nafion content, catalyst support, and preparation method in the catalyst layer, along with the carbon loading and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content in the micro-porous layer, on the performance of the anode composite electrode. The results show that the anode composite electrode delivers the best performance with 30% Pt content, a 1:1.5 Pt-Ru molar ratio, 10% Nafion content on reduced graphene oxide as the catalyst support. The synthesis is optimized with the impregnation reduction method using NaBH4 as the reducing agent, with the addition of 1.5 mg/cm2 carbon loading and 5% PTFE. Keywords: micro direct methanol fuel cell; composite electrode; catalyst carrier 1. Introduction A fuel cell is a type of power generation device that converts chemical energy into electric energy directly. It has the advantages of high energy conversion efficiency, high reliability, low noise, and is green and pollution-free [1,2]. At present, fuel cells have been used in the field of aerospace and submarines. Micro direct methanol fuel cells are widely used in micro robots, micro electronic equipment, micro medical devices, and personal mobile communication equipment. Therefore, they have an extensive future and wide application potential. Although the performance of μDMFC is considerably more advantageous compared to other types of fuel cells, such as strong continuous power supply capability, high reliability, and convenient fuel replenishment, there are still many limitations preventing its wide adaptation for industrial and commercial use [3–5]. Firstly, for μDMFC, the noble metal platinum (Pt) is considered the best biofunctional catalyst for optimal cell performance. However, Pt is scarce, difficult to purify, and hence high-cost, which has a huge impact on the material cost of μDMFC [6]. The accurate control of Pt load in the cell to minimize cost while maximizing cell performance is one of the most urgent problems to be addressed. Secondly, during the reaction of μDMFC, methanol will permeate from anode to cathode through the proton exchange membrane. The bifunctional Pt catalyst is used on both the anode and cathode side of the membrane, and the methanol crossover will result in the undesirable anodic reaction taking place on the cathode, which forms negative potential and reduces the overall output power [7]. In addition, during the continuous consumption of methanol during the reaction, insufficient oxygen in the air electrode will result in the incomplete oxidation of methanol, generating carbon monoxide (CO) instead of carbon College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China; liucr@hdu.edu.cn (C.L.); hss333999@163.com (S.H.); wenliyang2021@163.com (W.Y.); x923583923@163.com (Y.X.); lily5404@126.com (L.L.); gaofeng@hdu.edu.cn (G.W.) Institute of Flexible Electronics Technology of THU, Jiaxing 314000, China; yinlu_ifet@163.com (L.Y.); yujuan@ifet-tsinghua.org (J.Y.) Citation: Liu,C.;Hu,S.;Yin,L.; Yang, W.; Yu, J.; Xu, Y.; Li, L.; Wang, G.; Wang, L. Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Electrode. Micromachines 2021, 12, 72. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12010072 Received: 22 December 2020 Accepted: 6 January 2021 Published: 11 January 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu- tral with regard to jurisdictional clai- ms in published maps and institutio- nal affiliations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Li- censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and con- ditions of the Creative Commons At- tribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Micromachines 2021, 12, 72. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12010072 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/micromachines

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