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Text from PDF Page: 001 sustainability Review Fuel Cell Power Systems for Maritime Applications: Progress and Perspectives Hui Xing 1,2,* , Charles Stuart 3 , Stephen Spence 4 and Hua Chen 2 Citation: Xing,H.;Stuart,C.;Spence, S.; Chen, H. Fuel Cell Power Systems for Maritime Applications: Progress and Perspectives. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1213. https://doi.org/10.3390/ su13031213 Academic Editor: Dino Musmarra Received: 1 January 2021 Accepted: 21 January 2021 Published: 24 January 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). 1 2 3 4 * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Fuel cells as clean power sources are very attractive for the maritime sector, which is committed to sustainability and reducing greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant emissions from ships. This paper presents a technological review on fuel cell power systems for maritime applications from the past two decades. The available fuels including hydrogen, ammonia, renewable methane and methanol for fuel cells under the context of sustainable maritime transportation and their pre-processing technologies are analyzed. Proton exchange membrane, molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are found to be the most promising options for maritime applications, once energy efficiency, power capacity and sensitivity to fuel impurities are considered. The types, layouts and characteristics of fuel cell modules are summarized based on the existing applications in particular industrial or residential sectors. The various research and demonstration projects of fuel cell power systems in the maritime industry are reviewed and the challenges with regard to power capacity, safety, reliability, durability, operability and costs are analyzed. Currently, power capacity, costs and lifetime of the fuel cell stack are the primary barriers. Coupling with batteries, modularization, mass production and optimized operating and control strategies are all important pathways to improve the performance of fuel cell power systems. Keywords: maritime transportation; shipping emissions; fuel cells; hydrogen energy; alternative marine fuels; future power and propulsion; sustainability 1. Introduction Marine diesel engines have driven the shipping industry for over a century. Owing to the use of fossil fuels and particularly marine residual oils, greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants from ships, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matters (PM), have become the key regulatory targets in the maritime sector . The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a variety of regulations under Annex VI (titled Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships) of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) [2–4]. As well as this, the phasing out of GHG emissions from ships as soon as possible in this century has been set as a target . Correspondingly, a series of technological and operational measures have been employed to mitigate shipping emissions and improve ship energy efficiency [6,7]. However, current measures are not sufficient to make the shipping industry consistent with the global response to the threat of climate change . Hence, alternative fuels and energy sources are expected to play a vital role as a synergistic solution for reductions of SOx, NOx, PM and CO2 emissions. Apart from innovative technologies and systems for traditional engines, fuel cell power systems Marine Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China Institute of Green Energy for Ships and Marine Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China; email@example.com School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK; C.Stuart@qub.ac.uk Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; firstname.lastname@example.org Sustainability 2021, 13, 1213. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031213 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
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