Butanol Synthesis Routes for Biofuel Production

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materials Review Butanol Synthesis Routes for Biofuel Production: Trends and Perspectives Beata Kolesinska 1,* , Justyna Fraczyk 1, Michal Binczarski 2, Magdalena Modelska 2, Joanna Berlowska 3 , Piotr Dziugan 3, Hubert Antolak 3 , Zbigniew J. Kaminski 1 , Izabela A. Witonska 2 and Dorota Kregiel 3,* 1 2 3 * Correspondence: beata.kolesinska@p.lodz.pl (B.K.); dorota.kregiel@p.lodz.pl (D.K.); Tel.: +48-42-6313149 (B.K.); +48-42-6313247 (D.K.) Received: 14 December 2018; Accepted: 21 January 2019; Published: 23 January 2019 Institute of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland; justyna.fraczyk@p.lodz.pl (J.F.); zbigniew.kaminski@p.lodz.pl (Z.J.K.) Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland; michal.binczarski@p.lodz.pl (M.B.); modelska.magdalena89@gmail.com (M.M.); izabela.witonska@p.lodz.pl (I.A.W.) Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland; joanna.berlowska@p.lodz.pl (J.B.); piotr.dziugan@p.lodz.pl (P.D.); hubert.antolak@p.lodz.pl (H.A.) Abstract: Butanol has similar characteristics to gasoline, and could provide an alternative oxygenate to ethanol in blended fuels. Butanol can be produced either via the biotechnological route, using microorganisms such as clostridia, or by the chemical route, using petroleum. Recently, interest has grown in the possibility of catalytic coupling of bioethanol into butanol over various heterogenic systems. This reaction has great potential, and could be a step towards overcoming the disadvantages of bioethanol as a sustainable transportation fuel. This paper summarizes the latest research on butanol synthesis for the production of biofuels in different biotechnological and chemical ways; it also compares potentialities and limitations of these strategies. Keywords: acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation; biofuel; bioethanol; butanol; Clostridium spp. 1. Introduction The energy crisis has created strong demand for the development of alternative sources of energy to traditional fossil fuels. Alongside nuclear, solar and wind power, one such alternative is the production of biofuels from plants, cyanobacteria or eukaryotic microalgae. A particularly promising application of biofuels is as liquid car fuels, which can be blended with or even replace gasoline and diesel. Using bioethanol as a liquid fuel could reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as decrease the acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog associated with using gasoline [1]. However, ethanol can be used as an additive only at relatively low concentrations, if we are to maintain the standard parameters of the fuel [2–4]. Bioethanol can be produced from all types of biomass containing mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides [5,6]. However, the use of simple mono- and disaccharides, such as sucrose, simplifies the process of sugar extraction into water and fermentation to ethanol, and significantly decreases the cost of biosynthesis [7–12]. Technologies have been under development since the 1950s that use different sources and methods to produce biodiesel from plants [13–24]. Agricultural residues do offer an economically viable solution for the production of biofuels. Each year, more than 40 million tons of inedible plant material is produced, much of which is discarded. 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Materials 2019, 12, 350; doi:10.3390/ma12030350 www.mdpi.com/journal/materials

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