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Research Progress in Conversion of CO2 to Valuable Fuels

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Research Progress in Conversion of CO2 to Valuable Fuels ( research-progress-conversion-co2-valuable-fuels )

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Molecules 2020, 25, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 24 Mefofliecuielenst20c2o0n,2v5e,r3s65io3nofCO2hasattractedgreatconsiderationbecauseofthefactthatitisthe2mofo2s3t abundant C1 compound and is the major greenhouse gas [4–7]. The conversion of CO2 to value-added fuels or chemicals is important in recycling carbon species and simultaneously solving environmental fuels or chemicals is important in recycling carbon species and simultaneously solving environmental problems and energy crises. problems and energy crises. CO2 is one of the most stable molecules in which carbon is in the highest valence state. It is CO2 is one of the most stable molecules in which carbon is in the highest valence state. It is difficult to have an electrophilic reaction because of its poor electron affinity. Hence, the conversion difficult to have an electrophilic reaction because of its poor electron affinity. Hence, the conversion of CO2 depends on nucleophilic attack of the carbon atom. As is known, the dissociation energy for ofCO dependsonnucleophilicattackofthecarbonatom.Asisknown,thedissociationenergyfor 2 −1 breaking the C=O bond in CO2 molecules is higher than 750 kJ mol [8]. This is an uphill reaction breaking the C=O bond in CO2 molecules is higher than 750 kJ mol−1 [8]. This is an uphill reaction from a thermodynamic point of view. To complete such a reaction, high temperature, high pressure from a thermodynamic point of view. To complete such a reaction, high temperature, high pressure environment, or highly efficient catalysts are typically required to provide the necessary energy. Till environment, or highly efficient catalysts are typically required to provide the necessary energy. Till now, now, different strategies including thermal catalysis [9–13], photocatalysis [14–17], electrocatalysis different strategies including thermal catalysis [9–13], photocatalysis [14–17], electrocatalysis [18–21], [18–21], and photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions [22–25] have been adopted to conduct the and photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions [22–25] have been adopted to conduct the reduction of reduction of CO2, in which heat, light, or electricity were used to supply essential energy for the CO2, in which heat, light, or electricity were used to supply essential energy for the reaction. As is reaction. As is known, eight electrons are needed for each CO2 molecule to complete the conversion known, eight electrons are needed for each CO2 molecule to complete the conversion to hydrocarbon to hydrocarbon compounds. This leads to various products during the reduction process, resulting compounds. This leads to various products during the reduction process, resulting in complicated in complicated purification procedures and poor yield of desired products. Inspired by natural purification procedures and poor yield of desired products. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, photosynthesis, highly efficient and specific enzymatic reactions were incorporated into the highly efficient and specific enzymatic reactions were incorporated into the aforementioned reducing aforementioned reducing technologies to improve the efficiency and specificity of CO2 conversion technologies to improve the efficiency and specificity of CO2 conversion [26,27]. [26,27]. In this review, research progress of CO2 conversion through different strategies were summarized In this review, research progress of CO2 conversion through different strategies were and discussed with detailed comments of advantages and disadvantages (Scheme 1). In particular, summarized and discussed with detailed comments of advantages and disadvantages (Scheme 1). In using macrocycles as photosensitizers, current achievement, development, and catalytic activity in particular, using macrocycles as photosensitizers, current achievement, development, and catalytic photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic reactions coupled with enzymatic reactions were highlighted. activity in photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic reactions coupled with enzymatic reactions were Finally, this article also presented the main challenges and certain future prospects for the conversion highlighted. Finally, this article also presented the main challenges and certain future prospects for of CO2 to useful fuels. the conversion of CO2 to useful fuels. SScchheemee11. .ScchemattiiccsshowiingttheessttrraatteeggieiesstthhaattaarreeuussuuaallylyuusseeddininCCO2cconverrssiion. 2 2. Catalytic Reduction of CO2

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