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Nanotechnology of Positive Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

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Nanotechnology of Positive Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries ( nanotechnology-positive-electrodes-li-ion-batteries )

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inorganics Review Nanotechnology of Positive Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Xiaoyu Zhang 1, Ana-Gabriela Porras-Gutierrez 2, Alain Mauger 3, Henri Groult 2,* and Christian M. Julien 2 1 2 3 * Correspondence: Henri.Groult@upmc.fr Academic Editor: Tom Nilges Received: 1 March 2017; Accepted: 8 April 2017; Published: 14 April 2017 Abstract: This work presents the recent progress in nanostructured materials used as positive electrodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Three classes of host lattices for lithium insertion are considered: transition-metal oxides V2O5, α-NaV2O5, α-MnO2, olivine-like LiFePO4, and layered compounds LiNi0.55Co0.45O2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 and Li2MnO3. First, a brief description of the preparation methods shows the advantage of a green process, i.e., environmentally friendliness wet chemistry, in which the synthesis route using single and mixed chelators is used. The impact of nanostructure and nano-morphology of cathode material on their electrochemical performance is investigated to determine the synthesis conditions to obtain the best electrochemical performance of LIBs. Keywords: transition-metal oxides; cathode materials; nanotechnology; Li-ion batteries 1. Introduction The main drawback of transition-metal oxides used as positive electrode (cathode) materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is their poor discharge rate capability due to low intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity [1]. Thus, at high current densities, i.e., J > 1C rate (the rate is denoted C/n, where C is the theoretical cathode capacity and a full discharge occurs in n hours), the poor electrochemical performance is attributed to the slow electron transport of the material and the sluggish Li-ion kinetics within the grains. The currently adopted approach to get high rate capability is to reduce the diffusion path length of charge species by minimizing the particle size of the active phase [2,3]. The smaller the particle size, the larger the surface area over volume ratio, as shown in Figure 1 in which a 3 × 3 cube is compared to a single element. In this case, the surface/volume ratio is increased from 2 to 6. SynPLi Consulting, 17300 Rochefort, France; zhangxiaoyu2001@hotmail.com Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8234, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Universités Paris6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France; Ana-gabriela.porras-gutierrez@upmc.fr (A.-G.P.-G.); christian.julien@upmc.fr (C.M.J.) Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Universités Paris6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France; alain.mauger@impmc.jussieu.fr Inorganics 2017, 5, 25; doi:10.3390/inorganics5020025 www.mdpi.com/journal/inorganics

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