Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies

PDF Publication Title:

Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies ( green-diesel-biomass-feedstocks-production-technologies )

Next Page View | Return to Search List

Text from PDF Page: 001

energies Review Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies, Catalytic Research, Fuel Properties and Performance in Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Savvas L. Douvartzides 1,2,*, Nikolaos D. Charisiou 1, Kyriakos N. Papageridis 1 and Maria A. Goula 1,* 1 2 * Correspondence: sdouvar@teiwm.gr (S.L.D.); mgoula@teiwm.gr (M.A.G.); Tel.: +30-2461-068296 (M.A.G.) Received: 31 December 2018; Accepted: 25 February 2019; Published: 28 February 2019 Laboratory of Alternative Fuels and Environmental Catalysis (LAFEC), Department of Environmental and Pollution Control Engineering, Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece; ncharis@teiwm.gr (N.D.C.); kpapageridis@gmail.com (K.N.P.) Laboratory of Internal Combustion Engines, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece Abstract: The present investigation provides an overview of the current technology related to the green diesel, from the classification and chemistry of the available biomass feedstocks to the possible production technologies and up to the final fuel properties and their effect in modern compression ignition internal combustion engines. Various biomass feedstocks are reviewed paying attention to their specific impact on the production of green diesel. Then, the most prominent production technologies are presented such as the hydro-processing of triglycerides, the upgrading of sugars and starches into C15–C18 saturated hydrocarbons, the upgrading of bio-oil derived by the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials and the “Biomass-to-Liquid” (BTL) technology which combines the production of syngas (H2 and CO) from the gasification of biomass with the production of synthetic green diesel through the Fischer-Tropsch process. For each of these technologies the involved chemistry is discussed and the necessary operation conditions for the maximum production yield and the best possible fuel properties are reviewed. Also, the relevant research for appropriate catalysts and catalyst supports is briefly presented. The fuel properties of green diesel are then discussed in comparison to the European and US Standards, to petroleum diesel and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and, finally their effect on the compression ignition engines are analyzed. The analysis concludes that green diesel is an excellent fuel for combustion engines with remarkable properties and significantly lower emissions. Keywords: green diesel; biofuels; biomass feedstocks; hydro-processing of triglycerides; compression ignition (CI) engines 1. Introduction The modern world is in a continuous search for improved sources of energy. This effort is catalyzed by the gradual depletion of the reserves of crude oil, natural gas and coal, by the necessity for national energy security, and by the detrimental impact of the conventional utilization of fossil fuels on climatic conditions and the natural environment. Petroleum diesel is a distillate of fossil petroleum oil rich in saturated hydrocarbons (also known as paraffins or alkanes) containing 8 to 21 carbon atoms per molecule (C8 to C21). It also contains napthenes (cycloparafins) and aromatics and is produced through 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Energies 2019, 12, 809; doi:10.3390/en12050809 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies

PDF Image | Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies


PDF Search Title:

Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies

Original File Name Searched:


DIY PDF Search: Google It | Yahoo | Bing

SeaMerlin The SeaMerlin Engine is a water based gas leverage turbine for marine propulsion, seawater distillation, oceanwater CO2 harvesting, and more.

About: More about Infinity Turbine and the quest for the Xprize... More Info

Strategy and Consulting Services: Renewable energy strategy, Organic Rankine Cycle, CO2 energy, and Sonification technology consulting... More Info

@elonmusk XPrize $100 million CO2 Challenge: Carbon Removal Prize Challenge Sponsored by Elon Musk... More Info

CO2 Phase Change Demonstrator: Experiment with gas to liquids (CO2 to alcohol) using Nafion and our phase change demonstrator cart (we can ship worldwide)... More Info

CO2 GTL Gas to Liquids Experimental Platform: Experiment with gas to liquids (CO2 to alcohol) using Nafion (electrolyzer membrane) and our phase change demonstrator cart (we can ship worldwide). CO2 goes supercritical at 31 C. This is a experimental platform which you can use to demonstrate phase change with low heat. Includes integration area for small CO2 turbine, static generator, Nafion pellets, Nafion membrate, or Nafion tubes... More Info

Concept: The concept of the SeaMerlin Engine is to convert or supplement existing marine vessel propulsion to a gas leverage turbine which scavenges CO2 from saltwater at the same time it provides vessel thrust.

CONTACT TEL: 608-238-6001 Email: greg@seamerlin.com | RSS | AMP