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Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies

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Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies ( green-diesel-biomass-feedstocks-production-technologies )

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energies Review Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies, Catalytic Research, Fuel Properties and Performance in Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Savvas L. Douvartzides 1,2,*, Nikolaos D. Charisiou 1, Kyriakos N. Papageridis 1 and Maria A. Goula 1,* 1 2 * Correspondence: sdouvar@teiwm.gr (S.L.D.); mgoula@teiwm.gr (M.A.G.); Tel.: +30-2461-068296 (M.A.G.) Received: 31 December 2018; Accepted: 25 February 2019; Published: 28 February 2019 Laboratory of Alternative Fuels and Environmental Catalysis (LAFEC), Department of Environmental and Pollution Control Engineering, Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece; ncharis@teiwm.gr (N.D.C.); kpapageridis@gmail.com (K.N.P.) Laboratory of Internal Combustion Engines, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece Abstract: The present investigation provides an overview of the current technology related to the green diesel, from the classification and chemistry of the available biomass feedstocks to the possible production technologies and up to the final fuel properties and their effect in modern compression ignition internal combustion engines. Various biomass feedstocks are reviewed paying attention to their specific impact on the production of green diesel. Then, the most prominent production technologies are presented such as the hydro-processing of triglycerides, the upgrading of sugars and starches into C15–C18 saturated hydrocarbons, the upgrading of bio-oil derived by the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials and the “Biomass-to-Liquid” (BTL) technology which combines the production of syngas (H2 and CO) from the gasification of biomass with the production of synthetic green diesel through the Fischer-Tropsch process. For each of these technologies the involved chemistry is discussed and the necessary operation conditions for the maximum production yield and the best possible fuel properties are reviewed. Also, the relevant research for appropriate catalysts and catalyst supports is briefly presented. The fuel properties of green diesel are then discussed in comparison to the European and US Standards, to petroleum diesel and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and, finally their effect on the compression ignition engines are analyzed. The analysis concludes that green diesel is an excellent fuel for combustion engines with remarkable properties and significantly lower emissions. Keywords: green diesel; biofuels; biomass feedstocks; hydro-processing of triglycerides; compression ignition (CI) engines 1. Introduction The modern world is in a continuous search for improved sources of energy. This effort is catalyzed by the gradual depletion of the reserves of crude oil, natural gas and coal, by the necessity for national energy security, and by the detrimental impact of the conventional utilization of fossil fuels on climatic conditions and the natural environment. Petroleum diesel is a distillate of fossil petroleum oil rich in saturated hydrocarbons (also known as paraffins or alkanes) containing 8 to 21 carbon atoms per molecule (C8 to C21). It also contains napthenes (cycloparafins) and aromatics and is produced through 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Energies 2019, 12, 809; doi:10.3390/en12050809 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies

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