Current Developments of Carbon Capture Storage

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energies Review Current Developments of Carbon Capture Storage and/or Utilization–Looking for Net-Zero Emissions Defined in the Paris Agreement Maria João Regufe * , Ana Pereira , Alexandre F. P. Ferreira, Ana Mafalda Ribeiro and Alírio E. Rodrigues LSRE-LCM-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials, Associate Laboratory, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal; (A.P.); (A.F.P.F.); (A.M.R.); (A.E.R.) * Correspondence: Abstract: An essential line of worldwide research towards a sustainable energy future is the materials and processes for carbon dioxide capture and storage. Energy from fossil fuels combustion always generates carbon dioxide, leading to a considerable environmental concern with the values of CO2 produced in the world. The increase in emissions leads to a significant challenge in reducing the quantity of this gas in the atmosphere. Many research areas are involved solving this problem, such as process engineering, materials science, chemistry, waste management, and politics and public engagement. To decrease this problem, green and efficient solutions have been extensively studied, such as Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) processes. In 2015, the Paris Agreement was established, wherein the global temperature increase limit of 1.5 ◦C above pre-industrial levels was defined as maximum. To achieve this goal, a global balance between anthropogenic emissions and capture of greenhouse gases in the second half of the 21st century is imperative, i.e., net-zero emissions. Several projects and strategies have been implemented in the existing systems and facilities for greenhouse gas reduction, and new processes have been studied. This review starts with the current data of CO2 emissions to understand the need for drastic reduction. After that, the study reviews the recent progress of CCUS facilities and the implementation of climate-positive solutions, such as Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage and Direct Air Capture. Future changes in industrial processes are also discussed. Keywords: CO2 emissions; CCS; CCUS; global facilities 1. Introduction Due to the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) were unlocked as a new energy resource. Their excessive use has led to several negative impacts such as global climate change [1]. Figure 1 presents the surface air temperature anomalies between 1979 and 2020. For example, comparing with September 2016, September 2019 was the warmest month in the data record, which was 0.57 ◦C warmer than the average temperature from 1979–2010 [1]. Natural causes are also responsible for this effect. However, greenhouse gases from human activities including population growth, deforestation, agriculture, urbanization (urban heat islands), and the resulting changes in consumption patterns are responsible for more than 95% of global warming [2]. The greenhouse contribution in the temperature variation is evident, responsible for about 1 ◦C, more than other anthropogenic sources and natural variations. The principal greenhouse gas related to global climate change is carbon dioxide (CO2). Other gases, in minor quantities, are also responsible, such as methane (CH4), water vapor (H2 O), nitrous oxide (N2 O) and fluorinated gases (F-gases), specially hydrofluorocar- 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Citation: Regufe,M.J.;Pereira,A.; Ferreira, A.F.P.; Ribeiro, A.M.; Rodrigues, A.E. Current Developments of Carbon Capture Storage and/or Utilization–Looking for Net-Zero Emissions Defined in the Paris Agreement. Energies 2021, 14, 2406. en14092406 Academic Editor: Attilio Converti Received: 22 March 2021 Accepted: 9 April 2021 Published: 23 April 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/). Energies 2021, 14, 2406.

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