copper-based magnetic nanocatalyst for the fixation of carbon dioxide

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copper-based magnetic nanocatalyst for the fixation of carbon dioxide ( copper-based-magnetic-nanocatalyst-fixation-carbon-dioxide )

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www.nature.com/scientificreports OPEN Received: 25 September 2017 Accepted: 2 January 2018 Published: xx xx xxxx An efficient copper-based magnetic nanocatalyst for the fixation of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure Rakesh Kumar Sharma1, Rashmi Gaur1, ManaviYadav1, Anandarup Goswami2,3, Radek Zbořil 2 & Manoj B. Gawande 2 In the last few decades, the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the environment has caused havoc across the globe. One of the most promising strategies for fixation of CO2 is the cycloaddition reaction between epoxides and CO2 to produce cyclic carbonates. For the first time, we have fabricated copper-based magnetic nanocatalyst and have applied for the CO2 fixation. The prepared catalyst was thoroughly characterized using various techniques including XRD, FT-IR, TEM, FE-SEM, XPS, VSM, ICP-OES and elemental mapping. The reactions proceeded at atmospheric pressure, relatively lower temperature, short reaction time, solvent- less and organic halide free reaction conditions. Additionally, the ease of recovery through an external magnet, reusability of the catalyst and excellent yields of the obtained cyclic carbonates make the present protocol practical and sustainable. In the present era of progressive global development, human activities, such as combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and hydrogen production from hydrocarbons have contributed a lot towards raising the concen- tration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere1. Moreover, this rise is considered to be the major benefactor towards global warming and abnormal climate changes2. Hence, the mitigation of CO2 emission has become the serious albeit challenging issue for the countries, scientists and concerned area of research. Consequently, a plethora of strategies have been developed for capturing and storage of CO2 (CCS)3–6. On the other hand, valorisation of CO2 into value-added compounds is considered as the enviable and attractive alternative to CCS7. This methodology is not only beneficial in controlling the CO2 concentration but also offers the feedstock for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds8–10. However, the consumption and utilization of CO2 on a large scale encounter major challenges due to its inherent thermal stability and kinetic inertness11. Moreover, CO2 has been recently recognised as environmentally benign, inexpensive, non-flammable, abundant and renewable C1 building block12. One of the promising strategies for CO2 fixation is the cycloaddition reaction between epoxides and CO2 to obtain cyclic carbonates13. These cyclic carbonates are broadly utilized as electrolyte components in lithium batteries, green polar aprotic solvents, and intermediates for the production of plastics, pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals14–17. Several strategies including metal complexes of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Fe, N-heterocylic carbenes (NHCs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and ionic liquid-based protocols have been reported to facilitate the reaction of epoxides with CO218–30. Despite significant benefits in terms of reactivity and selectivity of the catalytic systems, most of the catalysts possess one or more problems including high catalyst loading, long reaction time and tedious reaction procedure and catalyst preparation. Although, there are catalytic systems that facilitate the transformation of CO2 at atmospheric pressure and mild reaction conditions, yet there is always much scope available for the improvement at several levels31–43. 1Green Chemistry Network Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India. 2Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71, Olomouc, Czech Republic. 3Division of Chemistry, Department of Sciences and Humanities Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research (VFSTR) Vadlamudi, Guntur, 522 213, Andhra Pradesh, India. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to R.K.S. (email: rksharmagreenchem@hotmail.com) or M.B.G. (email: manoj.gawande@upol.cz) SCientifiC RepoRts | (2018) 8:1901 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-19551-3 1

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